Chevrolet-Niva
1. The car device
2. Recommendations about operation
3. Malfunctions in a way
4. The engine
5. Transmission
6. A running gear
7. A steering
8. Brake system
9. An electric equipment
10. A body
11. Variants of execution of the car
12. Care of the car
13. Purchase of spare parts
14. A trip on HUNDRED
15. Winter operation of the car
15.1. How to make the car ready for the winter
15.2. Recommendations about engine start-up in a strong frost
15.3. That it is useful to buy by the winter
15.4. Useful winter councils
16. Preparation for checkup
17. Appendices
 







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15.1. How to make the car ready for the winter

The serviceable car does not demand "winter" preparation. For operation in northern areas of the country and big cities it is possible to recommend only to spend a number of kontrolno-verifying actions and special additional preparation to exclude accidents. Additional preparation, first of all, includes off-schedule maintenance service; it can be facilitated considerably, applying modern means of auto chemical goods and special operational materials.
The great value has serviceability of the storage battery at winter operation of the car. The electrolit density of completely charged accumulator room of the battery can differ from nominal no more than for 0,02/sm3
Most precisely degree заряженности the storage battery on electrolit density can be defined, measuring it at temperature + 25 °С.
At check of the accumulator by a special loading plug of the indication of the built in voltmeter should be 12,5–12,9 In at the disconnected loading and not to decrease more low 11 In at loading during 10 with. Such battery will long serve and reliably.
The most known marks of accumulators are Bosch and Varta. It is possible to recommend quite good storage batteries of Turkish firm Inci, Spanish Tudor and the Czech branch Varta, from domestic – the Tyumen and Podolsk storage factories.
At a choice of the storage battery pay attention to following parametres:
– Capacity. According to the maintenance instruction it should be 55 А·ч. It is supposed to apply batteries in capacity 45–60 А·ч. Too small capacity will create problems with "winter" start-up of the engine, at too big – the generator will not provide full gymnastics of the accumulator and battery service life will strongly be reduced;
– A current стартерного the category, And, under standard DIN 43 539. The more its size, the better, especially at winter operation. It is a guarantee of that the starter will turn a cranked shaft with enough high frequency of rotation, and if the engine is not started up from the first attempt, you will have a chance to make the second and the third.

       GOOD ADVICE
Do not get storage batteries of the southern countries-manufacturers: frosts there there is no also a current size стартерного the category at them can be essential less, than at the accumulators adapted for conditions of Russian winter.

If the accumulator nevertheless have discharged at unsuccessful start-up of the engine, it is possible to take advantage of cables for «прикуривания» with contact clips of type "crocodile". At purchase it is better to choose the cables calculated on the big loading (from 200).
Use of less viscous winter engine oil essentially facilitates start-up of the cold engine. The international classification SAE J-300 contains six classes of winter oils. "Winter" classes have in a designation letter W (winter – winter).
In the conditions of a temperate climate is admissible to apply in the winter the all-weather (universal) engine oils which have received now a wide circulation.
From domestic marks of engine oils it is possible to recommend such, as «Reksol the versatile person», «to Reksol Super», «LUKOIL the Standard», "Norsi", "Spektrol", "Ufaljub"; from import – Castrol GTX, ELF-Sporty, ESSO Ultra Oil X ESSO or Super Oil X, and also Shell Super Plus. However at purchase of oils, especially import, it is necessary to be careful of fakes, therefore is better to get oils in the specialised shops giving certificates on the goods.

       GOOD ADVICE
Remember that at intensive city driving oil replacement (and accordingly the oil filter) should be spent in strict conformity with the factory maintenance instruction of the car, reducing periodicity of replacement by 20 % each 50 thousand in km of run since 100 thousand in km. Greasing system wash out at transition to other mark of oil. The various "boilers" which ostensibly are warming up thickened oil in картере, do not give any practical effect, except premature failure of the accumulator.

In system of cooling of engines are applied special низкозамерзающие liquids – antifreezes: water solutions of spirits, glycols, glycerine and inorganic salts with addition of special additives. One of kinds of antifreezes – antifreeze – a water solution этиленгликоля with additives.
It is possible to fill in and import antifreeze. For the account большего quantities of additives import antifreezes serve longer and is better protect the engine from corrosion.

       THE PREVENTION
To apply water in system of cooling it is strictly forbidden in the winter. This results from the fact that at inclusion of the fan of a heater on a total power water circulation through a radiator can stop absolutely and water in a radiator will freeze directly during movement. At a stop of the car of circulation through a radiator there will be no also a motor "will begin to boil".

Before the beginning of winter operation it is useful to fill in in a petrol tank a special additive, for example Gasoline Treatment firms ABRO (USA), for removal of water from a tank and the power supply system.
The maintenance instruction orders to replace spark plugs through each 15 thousand in km. But, considering experience of carrying out of repair work, it is better to do it once a year irrespective of run before the beginning of winter operation or more often if the car is very tensely maintained in a big city or on gasoline of doubtful quality, or run for a year exceeds 15 thousand in km. It is better to apply spark plugs of import manufacturers: PAL (Brick), NGK, Bosch, Beru, Champion, etc.
Winter operation, especially in "the salted" streets of cities, repeatedly strengthens corrosion of details of a body. The regular sink is necessary in the winter, if the car is stored in the street, and is categorically necessary daily if the car is stored in warm garage. Water well washes off salt, and the layer of a wet dirt very long dries, strengthening fatal influence of salt on a paint and varnish covering of a body. As a last resort wash the car in thaw is more often, and before a cold snap wash up and rub off dry, in an ideal – dry in a warm premise. Before the beginning of winter operation necessarily spend additional anticorrosive processing of a body. Such processing is better to spend on specialised car-care centre with application of special protective means and technologies. Anticorrosive processing happens two kinds: processing of the bottom and the latent cavities of a body and processing of a paint and varnish covering of a body. Last can be made without effort independently. It includes a sink, drying and processing by special protective structures on the basis of, as a rule, wax or silicone. It is possible to recommend production firms ABRO (USA): autoshampoo with wax карнобы Wash-N-Glo, gold autowax with teflon Car Wax Super Gold, silicone autowax Heavy Duty Silicone Cleaner and Car Wax. If at processing of a body you find out deep scratches, process become bare metal the converter of a rust (modifier), for example domestic "Feran" or import Rust-Eater.
The most suitable to our winter have proved to be ошипованные winter tyres, but they are expensive enough. нешипованные it is more preferable than the tyre to constant city driving. By the way, if you go «by thorns», consider that on dry asphalt (such happens also in the winter) their coupling properties worse so, the brake way increases.

       THE PREVENTION
Do not forget: according to requirements ПДД at use шипованных tyres it is necessary to place on back glass a triangular sign with letter Ш to warn other drivers.

Table 15.1 the Temperature amendment to indications ареометра at measurement of density of electrolit
Temperature
Electrolits, °С
The amendment, g/sm3
-40 …-26
-0,04
-25 …-11
-0,03
-10 … +4
-0,02
+5 … +19
-0,01
+20 … +30
No
+31 … +45
+0,01

Table 15.2 electrolit Density at 25 °С, g/sm3
Climatic area (monthly average temperature of air in January, °С)
Season
Completely charged battery
The battery is discharged
On 25 %
On 50 %
Very cold (-50:-30)
Winter
Summer
1,3
1,28
1,26
1,24
1,22
1,2
Cold (-30:-15)
Moderated (-15:18)
Warm damp (0: + 4)
Hot dry (-15: + 4)
The round
Year
1,28
1,28
1,23
1,23
1,24
1,24
1,19
1,19
1,2
1,2
1,15
1,15

Table 15.3 of the Characteristic of winter oils

Class on SAE
The minimum temperature, °С
прокачивания
The oil pump
проворачивания the cranked
Shaft a starter
0W
-35
-30
5W
-30
-25
10W
-25
-20
15W
-20
-15
20W
-15
-10
25W
-10
-5

Table 15.4 the Temperature range of application of universal engine oils (on classification SAE)

Table 15.5 Conformity of classes of viscosity of engine oils on classifications SAE and Russia
SAE
5W
10W
15W
20W
20
20
30
Russia
6
8
10
SAE
30
40
40
50
5W/20
10W/20
10W/20
Russia
12
14
16
20
3з/8
4з/6
4з/8
SAE
10W/30
15/30
15W30
20W/30
20W/30
20W/40
20W/40
Russia
4з/10
5з/10
5з/12
6з/10
6з/12
6з/14
6з16

Table 15.6 the Basic indicators of a water solution этиленгликоля
Volume parity, %
Freezing temperature, °С
Density, g/sm3
этиленгликоль
Water
100
0
-12
1,130-1,140
90
10
-30
1,115-1,125
70
30
-67
1,095-1,105
60
40
-55
1,183-1,092
50
50
-34
1,071-1,079
40
60
-24
1,058-1,067
30
70
-13
1,044-1,052

Table 15.7 the Basic indicators of antifreeze (THAT 6-02-751-78)
Indicator
АМ
AND "65М
AND "40М
Colour
The blue
The red
The blue
Density at 20 °С, g/sm3
1,120-1,140
1,085-1,095
1,075-1,085
Freezing temperature, °С
It is not normalised
-65
-40
Boiling temperature, °С
170
115
108
Structure, %:
этиленгликоль
Water
Additives

96
4
6-7

60-64
40-36
3,5-5

50-56
50-44
3-3,5

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15.2. Recommendations about engine start-up in a strong frost