1. The car device
2. Recommendations about operation
3. Malfunctions in a way
3.1. The engine is not got
3.2. Malfunctions of system of injection of fuel
3.3. Idling was gone
3.4. Faults in engine work
3.5. The car moves jerky
3.6. The car is badly dispersed
3.7. The engine has decayed during movement
3.8. Pressure of oil has fallen
3.9. An engine overheat
3.10. The storage battery is not recharged
3.11. Malfunctions of an electric equipment
3.12. There were extraneous knocks
3.13. The possible reasons of knocks in a suspension bracket and transmission and ways of their elimination
3.14. Possible knocks (noise) карданной transfers, their reasons and ways of elimination
3.15. Possible knocks (noise) of the back bridge, their reason and ways of elimination
3.16. Possible knocks (noise) of the forward bridge, their reason and ways of elimination
3.17. Problems with brakes
3.18. A wheel puncture
4. The engine
5. Transmission
6. A running gear
7. A steering
8. Brake system
9. An electric equipment
10. A body
11. Variants of execution of the car
12. Care of the car
13. Purchase of spare parts
14. A trip on HUNDRED
15. Winter operation of the car
16. Preparation for checkup
17. Appendices


3.4. Faults in engine work

At faults the engine roughly idles, does not develop sufficient capacity, повышенно spends gasoline. Faults, as a rule, speak malfunction of atomizers or an electrogasoline pump («the Control system of the engine» more in detail see), malfunction of a spark plug of one of cylinders, подсосом air in one of cylinders. It is necessary to find malfunction and whenever possible it to eliminate.
1. Start up the engine and leave it to idle. Approach to an exhaust pipe and listen to an exhaust sound. It is possible to bring a hand to a cut of an exhaust pipe – so faults are felt better. The sound should be equal, "soft", one tone. Claps from an exhaust pipe through regular time intervals testify that one cylinder does not work because of failure of a candle, absence of a spark on it, about atomizer refusal, about strong подсосе air in one cylinder or considerable decrease in a compression in it. Claps through irregular time intervals arise because of pollution of sprays of atomizers, strong deterioration or pollution of spark plugs. If claps occur through unequal time intervals, it is possible to try to replace independently all complete set of candles irrespective of run and appearance, however it is better to do it after the reference on car-care centre for diagnostics and repair of a control system by the engine.
2. If claps are regular, stop the engine and open a cowl. Check up a condition of wires of system of ignition. High-voltage wires should not have isolation damages, and their tips should not be oxidised. If there are damages of wires, replace a faulty wire.
3. Remove tips of high-voltage wires...
4.... Also turn out candles a candle key.

At removal of tips of high-voltage wires never pull for a wire. Undertake a hand directly a tip and before removal turn it here and there, and then pull.

Attentively examine candles and compare their appearance to the photos resulted in the end of subsection. The backlash between candle electrodes should be 0,8–0,9 mm. If a candle black and damp, she can be thrown out.
5. If all candles look serviceable, establish them into place and connect high-voltage wires. The operating procedure of cylinders 1–3–4–2, numbering of cylinders (1, 2, 3, 4th) is made from a pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine.
6. Take a spare candle. In any way fix it on the engine.

Do not fix a candle on маслоналивной to a mouth, маслоизмерительном щупе, fuel hoses.

Reliable contact of the case or carving part of a candle to "weight" is unessential, but is desirable. Connect a high-voltage wire from 1st cylinder to a spare candle. Start up the engine. If engine faults have not amplified, replace a candle in 1st cylinder obviously serviceable. Put on a high-voltage wire and start up the engine. If faults have amplified, consistently repeat procedure of item 6 with all cylinders to reveal a faulty candle.
If as a result of the accepted measures engine faults are not eliminated, address on car-care centre for diagnostics of system of ignition at the stand or engine diagnostics – compression gauging. The normal compression – more than 1,1 МПа (11 kgs/sm2), difference more than 0,1 МПа (1 kgs/sm2) in one cylinder testifies to necessity of repair of the engine.

If diagnostics has revealed malfunction of 3rd cylinder, remove a hose connecting the vacuum amplifier of brakes with the engine, reliably muffle it and start up the engine.

If faults in engine work have stopped, diagnostics and replacement of the vacuum amplifier of brakes (section 8 «Brake system» see) is required.
If faults in engine work proceed, try to pour a liquid of type WD-40 over a hose outside. If faults in engine work at least on a short time interval have stopped, try to replace a hose – probably, in it there is a rupture.

Diagnostics of a condition of the engine on appearance of spark plugs
1. A normal candle.
Brown or serovato-yellowish colour and small deterioration of electrodes. Exact thermal value for the engine and operating conditions.

At replacement of candles on new establish candles with the same characteristics.

2. Soot adjournment.
Adjournment of a dry soot specifies in a rich toplivno-air mix or later ignition. Causes the ignition admissions, the complicated start-up of the engine and unstable work of the engine. Check up, whether the air filter is hammered, whether gauges of temperature of a cooling liquid and arriving air are serviceable.

Use "hotter" candle (the extended insulator with the central electrode).

3. Oil adjournment.
Greasy electrodes and candle insulator. The reason – oil hit in the combustion chamber. Oil gets to the combustion chamber through directing valves or through piston rings. Causes the complicated start-up, admissions in work of the cylinder and twitching of the working engine. Repair of a head of cylinders and piston group of the engine is necessary. Replace spark plugs.
4. An overheat.
The reasons can be: discrepancy of type of a spark plug recommended for the engine of your car, early ignition, a poor mix, подсос air in the inlet pipeline. Check up level of a cooling liquid and whether the radiator is hammered.
5. Early ignition.
The melted off electrodes. The insulator white, but can be polluted because of admissions of a spark and adjournment getting on it from the combustion chamber. Can lead to engine damage. It is necessary to check up conformity of type of a spark plug, serviceability of the gauge of a detonation, cleanliness of sprays of atomizers and the fuel filter, work of systems of cooling and greasing.
6. Glaze.
Insulator yellowish, covered with glaze. Specifies that the temperature in the combustion chamber unexpectedly rises during sharp acceleration of the car. Normal adjournment turn to the current-carrying. Causes admissions in искрообразовании at high speeds.

After installation of new candles change a driving manner. If do not wish it to do, try to establish "colder" candles.

7. The bridge between electrodes.
Adjournment from the combustion chamber get between electrodes. "Heavy" adjournment gather in a backlash between electrodes and form the bridge. The candle ceases to work and the cylinder is switched off from work. Reveal a faulty candle and remove adjournment between electrodes.
8. Ashy adjournment.
The Light brown adjournment covering with a crust the central and lateral electrodes. Are allocated from additives to oil or gasoline. Their big quantity can lead to isolation of electrodes of a candle, causing admissions in искрообразовании and faults at dispersal. If excessive adjournment are formed in a short space of time or at small run, replace маслосъемные caps of directing valves to prevent oil hit in the combustion chamber.

If adjournment are stably formed at long run, the reason as gasoline – replace a refuelling place.

9. Deterioration.
The rounded off electrodes with a small amount of adjournment on the working ends. Normal colour. Causes difficult start-up in cold or damp weather and bad fuel profitability. Replace candles new with the same characteristics.
10. A detonation.
The insulator can be cracked or with сколами. It can lead to piston damage. Be convinced that октановое the gasoline number corresponds to the demanded. Check up serviceability of the gauge of a detonation.
11. Spotty adjournment.
The deposit which was postponed in the combustion chamber, after correct adjustment starts to burn out and at the big turns of the engine comes off the piston and sticks to a candle insulator, causing separate admissions in its work. Replace candles new or clear the old.
12. Mechanical damages.
Damages can be caused the alien subjects which have got to the chamber of combustion, and in case of use of too long candle the piston can hook on its electrodes. It leads to candle destruction, switching-off of the cylinder and can damage the piston. Remove an alien subject from the cylinder and (or) replace a candle.

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3.5. The car moves jerky