4.2. A good advice
At known skill and attentiveness many malfunctions of the engine and its systems can be defined precisely enough on colour of the smoke leaving an exhaust pipe. The dark blue smoke testifies to oil hit in combustion chambers, and constant дымление – a sign of strong deterioration of details цилиндропоршневой groups. Smoke occurrence at перегазовках, after long прокручивания a starter, after long work idling or right after specifies braking by the engine, as a rule, in deterioration маслосъемных caps of valves. A black smoke – too rich mix because of malfunction of a control system of the engine or atomizers. The grey smoke with a moisture impurity (especially after an engine overheat) means that the cooling liquid has got to the combustion chamber through the damaged lining of a head of the block of cylinders. At strong damage of this lining the liquid sometimes gets and in the oil pallet, thus oil level sharply raises, and oil turns in muddy whitish эмульсию. A white smoke, especially at not heated-up engine or in cold weather, – the normal phenomenon.
Often enough it is possible to see the car standing in the middle of a city stopper with the open cowl, letting out steam clubs. An overheat. Better, of course, it not to suppose, glancing at the temperature index more often. But nobody is insured that the thermostat can unexpectedly refuse, the electrofan or simply to begin to flow antifreeze. If you have missed the overheat moment, do not panic and do not aggravate a situation. Not so the overheat, as its possible consequences is terrible. Never at once suppress the engine – it will receive a heatstroke and, probably, having cooled down, in general will refuse to be got. Having stopped, allow to it to work on single turns, thus in system liquid circulation will remain. Include on the maximum capacity a heater
and open a cowl
. If there is a possibility, water a radiator with cold water. Only having achieved temperature decrease, stop the engine. But never at once open a stopper of a broad tank or a radiator – on перегретом the
engine the geyser from under an open stopper is provided. Do not hasten, allow to all to cool down and you keep health of the car and your own.
Practically in all instructions to the car the recommendation contains at engine start-up necessarily to squeeze out coupling
. This recommendation is justified only in case of start-up in a strong frost not to spend energy of the accumulator on проворачивание
shaft and transmission gear wheels in the thickened oil. In other cases it is simple the recommendation that the car has not got under way, if on forgetfulness transfer is included. This reception is harmful to the engine as at the squeezed out coupling through it the considerable effort is transferred to the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft, and at start-up (especially cold) greasing to it long does not arrive. The bearing quickly wears out, the cranked shaft receives axial люфт
, and трогание
from a place starts to be accompanied by strong vibration. Not to spoil the engine, take in habit to check before start-up position of the lever of a gear change and to start up the engine at the tightened manual brake, without squeezing out coupling